Tuesday, 29 November 2011

simple past tense

BE CAREFUL! The simple past in English may look like a tense in your own language, but the meaning may be different.
1. Simple past, form
Regular verbsbase+ede.g. walked, showed, watched, played, smiled, stopped

Irregular verbs: see list in verbs

Simple past, be, have, do:
Subject
Verb
Be
Have
Do
I
was
had
did
You
were
had
did
He, she, it
was
had
did
We
were
had
did
You
were
had
did
They
were
had
did
Affirmativea. I was in Japan last year
b. She had a headache yesterday.
c. We did our homework last night.

Negative and interrogativeNote: For the negative and interrogative simple past form of "do"as an ordinary verb, use the auxiliary "do", e.g. We didn't do our homework last night. The negative of "have" in the simple past is usually formed using the auxiliary "do", but sometimes by simply adding not or the contraction "n't".
The interrogative form of "have" in the simple past normally uses the auxiliary "do".

  • They weren't in Rio last summer.
  • We hadn't any money.
  • We didn't have time to visit the Eiffel Tower.
  • We didn't do our exercises this morning.
  • Were they in Iceland last January?
  • Did you have a bicycle when you were a boy?
  • Did you do much climbing in Switzerland?
Simple past, regular verbs
Affirmative
Subjectverb + ed
Iwashed
Negative
Subjectdid notinfinitive withoutto
Theydidn'tvisit ...
Interrogative
Didsubjectinfinitive withoutto
Didshearrive...?
Interrogative negative
Did notsubjectinfinitive withoutto
Didn'tyoulike..?

Example: to walk, simple past.
AffirmativeNegativeInterrogative
I walkedI didn't walkDid I walk?
You walkedYou didn't walkDid you walk?
He,she,it walkedHe didn't walkDid he walk?
We walkedWe didn't walkDid we walk?
You walkedYou didn't walkDid you walk?
They walkedThey didn't walkDid they walk?
Note: For the negative and interrogative form of all verbs in the simple past, always use the auxiliary 'did''.
Examples: Simple past, irregular verbs
to go
a. He went to a club last night.
b. Did he go to the cinema last night?
c. He didn't go to bed early last night.

to gived. We gave her a doll for her birthday.
e. They didn't give John their new address.
f. Did Barry give you my passport?

to comeg. My parents came to visit me last July.
h. We didn't come because it was raining.
i. Did he come to your party last week?

2. Simple past, function
The simple past is used to talk about a completed action in a time before now. Duration is not important. The time of the action can be in the recent past or the distant past.
  • John Cabot sailed to America in 1498.
  • My father died last year.
  • He lived in Fiji in 1976.
  • We crossed the Channel yesterday.
You always use the simple past when you say when something happened, so it is associated with certain past time expressions
Examples:
  • frequency:
    often, sometimes, always;
  • a definite point in time:
    last week, when I was a child, yesterday, six weeks ago.
  • an indefinite point in time:
    the other day, ages ago, a long time ago etc.
Note: the word ago is a useful way of expressing the distance into the past. It is placed after the period of time e.g. a week ago, three years ago, a minute ago.
Examples:
a. Yesterday, I arrived in Geneva.
b. She finished her work at seven o'clock.
c. We saw a good film last week.
d. I went to the theatre last night.
e. She played the piano when she was a child.
f. He sent me a letter six months ago.
g. Peter left five minutes ago.

A LITTLE OR A FEW

We always confuse when to use a little, when to use a few. Below are some tips for it.

The expressions a little and a few mean some.
  • If a noun is in singular, we use a little

    Example:
    a little money






  • If a noun is in plural, we use a few

    Example:
    a few friends





Countable / Uncountable Nouns

In connection with a little / a few people often speak of countable nouns and uncountable nouns.
Countable nouns have a singular and a plural form. In plural, these nouns can be used with a number (that's why they are called 'countable nouns'). Countable nouns take a few.
Example:
4 friends – a few friends
Uncountable nouns can only be used in singular. These nouns cannot be used with a number (that's why they are called 'uncountable nouns'). Uncountable nouns take a little.
Example:
3 money – a little money
Note: Of course you can count money – but then you would name the currency and say that you have got 3 euro (but not „3 money“).

A Little / A few or Little / Few

It's a difference if you use a little / a few or little / few. Without the article, the words have a limiting or negative meaning.
  • a little = some
    little = hardly any

    Example:
    I need a little money. - I need some money.
    I need little money. - I need hardly any money.






  • a few = some
    few = hardly any

    Example:
    A few friends visited me. - Some friends visited me.
    Few friends visited me. - Hardly any friends visited me.





Without the article, little / few sound rather formal. That's why we don't use them very often in everyday English. A negative sentence with much / many is more common here.
Example:
I need little money. = I do not need much money.
Few friends visited me. = Not many friends visited me.

Exersice on A little or a few

After study the note,lets us do some exercise on it.

http://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/vocabulary/little-few/exercises